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Depth Analysis: What are the main way of laser cutting?
- Jun 03, 2016 -

Depth Analysis: What are the main way of laser cutting?
Laser cutting is a high-energy, high-precision, high density, good controllability of non-contact processing methods. After formation of the laser beam focusing spot having a high energy density, used in industrial cutting it has many features. The laser cutting, there are four different cutting methods in order to respond to different situations.

Melting cutting

In the laser melting cutting, the workpiece is partially melted by means of air flow the molten material ejected. Because the transfer material occurs only in its liquid situation, so that the laser melting process is called cutting.

Laser beam cutting coupled with high purity inert gas to promote the melted material leaving the kerf, and the gas itself is not involved in cutting. Cutting laser melting can be higher than the vaporization cutting speed. The energy required for gasification is usually higher than the energy required for melting the material. Melting laser cutting, the laser beam is absorbed only partially. Maximum cutting speed increased as the laser power increased, and with the increase of the melting temperature of the material increases the thickness of the sheet is almost inversely proportionally reduced. Under certain circumstances the laser power, the limiting factor is the cutting pressure and thermal conductivity of the material at the seam. Laser melting for cutting ferrous materials and titanium oxide can be obtained without incision. But less than gasification melting generation of laser power density, the steel material, in between 104W / cm2 ~ 105W / cm2.

Vaporizable cutting

In the laser vaporization process, the temperature was raised to the boiling point temperature of the surface speed is so fast enough to avoid melting caused by heat conduction, so part of the material is vaporized into steam disappeared, as part of the material from the gas discharged was cut by the auxiliary bottom seam stream blown away. It requires very high laser power in this case.

In order to prevent material vapor condensation to slotted wall thickness of the material must not be too much more than the diameter of the laser beam. This process is only suitable for the application in the molten material must be avoided to exclude the case.

The process is actually only a small iron-based alloys for use in the field.

This process can not be used, such as wood and some ceramic, etc., who do not have a molten state and therefore unlikely to material vapor recondensation material. In addition, these materials are generally to achieve a thicker incision. In the laser vaporization, the optimal beam focusing depends on material thickness and beam quality. Laser power and heat of vaporization of the optimum focus position only a certain impact. In certain plate thickness, the maximum cutting speed is inversely proportional to the vaporization temperature of the material. The required laser power density greater than 108W / cm2, and depends on the material, cutting depth and the beam focus position. Under certain circumstances plate thickness, assuming sufficient laser power, cutting speed is limited by the maximum speed of the gas jet.
Fracture control cutting
For brittle materials easy to heat damage, carried out by a laser beam heating speed, controlled cutting, called the control fracture cleavage. This cutting process main contents are: laser beam heating small areas of brittle materials, causing a large thermal gradient in the region and severe mechanical deformation, resulting in the formation of cracks in the material. Just keep a balanced heating gradient, the laser beam can be guided cracks in any desired direction.

Oxidation melting cutting (laser flame cutting)

Usually an inert gas is molten cut, if replaced by oxygen or other reactive gas, material is ignited by irradiation of the laser beam, other heat generating violent chemical reaction with oxygen, the material is further heated, called oxidation melting cutting.

Because of this effect, the structural steel of the same thickness, can be obtained using the method of cutting the cutting speed is higher than the melting. On the other hand, the method of melting and cutting may be worse compared to the quality of the cut. In fact, it will generate a wider kerf, apparent roughness, increased heat affected zone and edge quality worse. Laser flame cutting in the processing precision and sharp model is bad (has sharp corners burn hazard). You can use the laser pulse mode to limit the influence of the heat of the laser power decision cutting speed. Under certain circumstances the laser power, limiting factor is the oxygen supply and thermal conductivity of the material.

Above are the four most commonly used laser cutting, the user may be determined in accordance with the requirements of cutting programs and material characteristics of the power cutting equipment and processing.