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Fiber laser applications in the oil industry
- Jun 23, 2016 -

Fiber laser applications in the oil industry

Conditions of relatively poor oil field, a lot of metal parts long withstand heavy loads and corrosion, friction and wear conditions to use. Leading to premature failure of destruction. Using laser surface modification technology can improve material hardness and wear resistance. In the laser processing technology, laser surface hardening has the advantage of saving energy and material, the article introduces the principle of laser surface modification, classification and a variety of laser metal surface modification process characteristics. Focuses on laser transformation hardening, laser cladding, laser melting, laser alloying, laser shock peening applications in the oil industry, the exhibition saw the technology in the oil industry application prospects.

The advent of laser in 1960s. High-power lasers appears mid-1970s. Laser processing technology has not only been rapid development in research and development. But also in industrial applications has also made considerable progress. After 30 years of rapid development, laser processing technology has been successfully applied in the automotive, metallurgy, textile and other industries. Get a good social and economic benefits. Laser processing technology since the advent of the oil industry to get attention and get a certain application. Such as laser cutting oil slotted screen, laser welding pipelines, high-energy laser drilling wells, laser measurement, laser marking and laser surface hardening.
In the laser processing technologies. Laser surface hardening has to save energy, and the obvious economic advantages of the material, has demonstrated broad application prospects. This paper summarizes and discusses the application of laser surface modification of the status quo and prospect in the oil industry.

Principles and classification of laser surface modification

When the laser beam is irradiated to the surface, the laser energy is absorbed into the material, the surface of the material to heat up. Since power is concentrated on a small surface, in a very short time the material is heated to a high temperature, so that the occurrence of solid phase change material, or even melted and evaporated. When the laser beam is cut off or removed, the rapid surface cooling (cooling rate higher 10000 ° C / s), natural cooling can achieve surface modification. The laser beam and the surface of a material effect power densities, different time and mode of action can be achieved by laser surface modification of different types. Laser Surface Modification Technology Classification Figure 1 ridicule. Figure 2 shows the laser surface modification method in which the laser power density and time coordinates position Court. These processes depend largely on the power density and irradiation time.

When the laser beam is irradiated to the surface, the laser energy is absorbed into the material, the surface of the material to heat up. Since power is concentrated on a small surface, in a very short time the material is heated to a high temperature, so that the occurrence of solid phase change material, or even melted and evaporated. When the laser beam is cut off or removed, the rapid surface cooling (cooling rate higher 10000 ° C / s), natural cooling can achieve surface modification. The laser beam and the surface of a material effect power densities, different time and mode of action can be achieved by laser surface modification of different types. Laser Surface Modification Technology Classification Figure 1 ridicule. Figure 2 shows the laser surface modification method in which the laser power density and time coordinates position Court. These processes depend largely on the power density and irradiation time.

Laser transformation hardening (laser hardening) Application
Laser transformation hardening is one of the methods available in a variety of laser surface treatment technology research and most applications. With a laser beam scans the surface of the part. Its infrared energy is absorbed by the surface of the part quickly warmed to extremely high temperatures, when the work is still in the cold, with a laser beam to leave the surface of the part, due to the heat conduction. Rapid heat transfer to the inner surface, so that the surface cooled and get a high cooling rate, it can be self-cooled quenching, achieve surface transformation hardening. Laser transformation hardening process for its small heat affected zone and less deformation of the workpiece, fine grain and uniform quench zone, the workpiece good modification effect and other advantages to occupy an increasingly important role in the progress of the product lifetime. It is a good solution to the requirements of good wear resistance mechanical products and parts of complex shape, thin wall parts surface modification problems. Laser transformation hardening processing method had been used in the United States as early as GM Saginaw steering plant production line in the 1970s. In China, the laser heat treatment research, development and application began in the 1970s. By the Academy of Sciences Institute of Railway metallic chemical and CAS Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and other units to take the lead in this work since. Also it has 20 years of history. Currently, laser transformation hardening processing method has been widely used in many industrial sectors automobile, metallurgy, heavy machinery. As oil fields have been late to enter the mining, mechanical recovery throughout the extraction proportion is growing. Pump is the key equipment of artificial lift. Because mined liquid contains a lot of corrosive gases. Some wear plus impurities bottom, the pump cylinder often damaged. Thus seriously affecting the extraction efficiency. As early as 1983, the Chinese Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the metal on Yumen Petroleum Machinery Factory, research pump barrel pump laser quenching (ie transformation hardening) process, in 1987 the former Oil Ministry identified. Downhole use the results show. Cylinder after laser quenching, life progress doubled. But little distortion, power consumption is only 12% of chromium plating process. They also carried out the entire cylinder 45. Steel and ductile iron piston drill pump liner laser hardening tests, have achieved good results.
In recent years. Many researchers pump laser transformation hardening process conducted a lot of research. Shengli Oilfield such as money-hui to the inner diameter 44 ~ 83 rain, length 300 mm combination of pump laser hardening Cylinder conducted. Cylinder inner surface hardness HRC60 ~ 66, hardened layer depth of 0.4-0.6 mm, the diameter of the cylinder liner deformation of only about 0.03 mill. The amount is far less than conventional heat treatment deformation, substantial increase production efficiency, reduce production costs.
With the development of laser transformation hardening process. Many researchers use laser transformation hardening + complex treatment process to strengthen other methods. For example, the Northeast and other oil management bureau Zhang Pengji by increasing the outside light guide system, solves the diameter 70 mill, the entire tube length 7.6 m pump pump barrel surface laser hardening technical difficulties. And identified by the C-N permeation treatment after laser hardening process according to the field test conditions. To form a more perfect whole barrel pump tube laser annealing process route. Laser hardening process for the cylinder and cylinder IF quenching process now widely used to compare the results show, the entire tube pump barrel using CN permeation after laser quenching, with high efficiency, low energy consumption, low cost advantage. And expanding the selection range of the pump cylinder. Southwest Petroleum Institute Tang Furong, who used a 45 ° steel drilling pump liner material on the basis of frequency quenching and then laser transformation hardening process. Cylinder Surface obtain high hardness, hardness gradient flat, branched Cheng Lijiang, good wear resistance reinforcing layer. Not only can the cylinder liner has a strong wear resistance in drilling in medium sand, but also conducive to the release of stress, which is slightly higher than the life of high chromium cast iron double metal cylinder, with low cost.

Pipe threads on discharge often appears galling phenomenon. Henan Petroleum Exploration Bureau Valley Zhifeng using a laser hardening process of tubing threads quenching, surface treated showed a superfine structure, surface hardness HVQl340, hardened layer depth, crest 0.5 ~ 1.1 mm, bottom teeth 0.2-0.4 mm, solve tubing gluing problem.
Laser transformation hardening process is not only certain applications in downhole oil production machinery. Further drilling machine bottom hole also received more applications old. Drill pipe as oil drilling, geological drilling, an essential tool for mining drilling, it plays an extremely important role in the drilling process. Due to the harsh underground environment, making the drill shorten the life span, it is difficult to meet the deep drilling needs. Currently. Drilling rods material often used 30CrMnSiA or 45MnMoB. Before machining performed only conventional heat treatment. Wu Dongjiang and other high-power CO2 lasers, drill pipe surface quenching using orthogonal experiment method, which enables the tool joint surface has been very high hardness (HV 0.1 1150), than that of the base and the hardness (HV 0.1 380 ) twice or more than the high-frequency hardening, hard chrome plating and other methods of hardness value (HVn 0.1 800) more than 40%, abrasion resistance significant progress. Document of drill pipe joints material 30 CrMnSiA steel surface transformation hardening process, the results show, 30 CrMnSiA steel surface transformation hardening layer is divided into fully hardened layer, a transition layer and the heat affected matrix structure. The microstructure of the hardened layer is refined, the wear resistance of the surface layer of significant progress. Abroad have someone downhole turbine drilling tools 128700 bearing laser rapid heating and deep melting modification, so that the surface hardness of HRC57-60, progressive wear resistance, which supports Bearing uniform working life than ordinary turbo drill support section progress than 2 times.

Gear transmits power plays and the movement to change the speed and direction role in the drive. Lot laser transformation hardening process research and applications in terms of surface hardening gear. The process can overcome conventional gear surface hardening process (such as carburizing, induction hardening etc.) hardened layer of uneven distribution, deformation shortcomings, you can obtain a uniform hardened layer along the tooth profile distribution.

Application of Laser Cladding
Laser cladding alloy powder is to fill the different components of the laser beam is applied to the bath heating formed. By laser to melt it. The resulting cladding layer and the metal substrate atoms exhibit a metallurgical bond. So that the metal surface to obtain high wear resistance, corrosion resistance, overall performance, high temperature anti-oxidation sequence. Compared with conventional surface coatings (such as welding, coating, spraying, etc.), laser cladding layer has the following technical characteristics.
(1) Cladding layer and the substrate can be achieved strong metallurgical bonding or diffusion bonding interface
(2) Cooling rate is generally greater than 10000 ° C / s, belonging to the rapid solidification process. Easily obtain fine grain structure or create new phase equilibrium can not be obtained, such as non-stationary phase, amorphous and the like.
(3) By adjusting the laser parameters, you can get good low dilution rate coating and the coating composition and dilution control.
(4) Thermal deformation of the laser processing, especially when using high power density rapidly cladding, the deformation may be reduced to the assembly tolerances of parts.

(5) Cladding layer of large, single-channel powder feeding primary coating thickness 0.2-2.0mm, it is suitable for common wear repair oil field wearing parts.

(6) Easily achieved constituency cladding.

(7) The process can be automated.
Application of laser cladding technology is in the development stage. Since 1989, China's Yu Yan Wo in the hammer mill. Liu Wenjin engine rocker arm on the surface. Zhang Song et cemented carbide powder using laser cladding technology on leaf blowers, have achieved success. Cladding make life after life of the workpiece than the original workpiece significant progress. It shows a wide application prospect laser cladding technology. In the field of oil industry, the application of laser cladding technique rarely reported is understood. Since 1989. The domestic part of the drill bit factory and research institutes of some universities cooperation in the use of laser technology in steel tooth drill bit tungsten carbide cladding (we), has achieved initial results. Currently, this technology is to promote the use of cone bits. When working roller cone bit at the bottom, because the cone shell surface wear intense. Cone surface than the cutting teeth often severe wear in advance. Which appears out tooth, loose teeth and other phenomena that can not be got. Greatly reducing the life of the drill. In recent decades has been the carburizing drill manufacturers as an important means progress bit cone surface hardness, but the process limitations.
Laser cladding technology in cone surface modification. It is clearly a more effective way. N J Kar Patent U54781770 (E.PO, 303,419A1) has raised a cone on the surface of the housing laser cladding process. Direct bonding, plasma spraying and other methods, to advance the WC powder coated cone shell surface (or synchronous powder feeding method), and then using a continuous CO2 laser is greater than 1.5kW, the laser beam spot diameter of 10.0mm melt coating under the beam. Coating thickness of 0.4-0.8mm. And repeated several times by adding the powder is achieved by scanning thicker coatings. Cladding layer hardness up to HRC 57-60. In addition to the above-described initializing powder process, it can also preset by ultrasonic spray powder. This method of dusting speed quickly, the temperature is low, the quality of the coating was significantly higher than plasma spray coatings. Apply a thin layer of graphite on the ultrasonic spray coatings. In order to improve the absorption of the workpiece substrate to laser energy. Apply pitch of 0.25 mm in the form of multi-channel lap completed Cladding. Around 1990. N. J. Kar cooperation with Smith International. Developed cone bit shell ultrasonic flame spray coating and carbide laser cladding process technology. They first supersonic flame spraying on the cone shell layer of cemented carbide in order to obtain false alloy plating layer dense homogeneous structure. Then using a multi-channel output power of 5 kW surface melting of CO2 lasers. After treatment the hardness of the cladding layer can exceed HRC70. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed. After the laser treatment the coating becomes more dense. Melt coating is also quite good. And combined with a solid base, and significant penetration of the substrate and the phenomenon does not occur at the junction of sanctions mobility phenomenon. After the drill after the above process in several regions of the United States by field trials. None of the damage of laser cladding coating. Even carbide tooth is damaged or even broken drill was completely damaged, cladding still exist.

Jianghan drill factpru in cooperation with Huazhong University of Science and other units. Steel tooth bit Cladding WC. By adjusting the laser process parameters, so that the rate of melting burning WC particles significantly reduced. To ensure the effective particle size and high intensity in the cladding layer. Its wear resistance has been significant progress over the line with hydrogen atoms deposited weld cladding. Cladding sealed bearing roller cone bits come out later. How a sliding bearing surface modification is difficult. G. M. Ecer made to obtain a composite bearing surfaces of new technology; R. P. Badrack and T. H. Mayo together proposed drill bit bearing surface laser cladding process technology (its finishing treatment of the surface layer cooling, the hardness of HRC55).

Pump barrel inner wall of the laser transformation hardening can only be strengthened. But also to strengthen and repair by laser cladding. Laser cladding process, the inner cylinder wall cladding layer of wear resistant cemented carbide powder. Greatly improved hardness and wear resistance. Liner drilling mud pump and pump can also be similarly treated.

Valve is a fluid delivery system control components. The key parts of the sealing surface. Petrochemical production system valves not only a large amount. And in many cases even at higher temperatures and pressures to bear scratch abrasion, impact corrosion wear and different media. Domestic critical seal faces some high parameters of the valve generally use plasma spray, arc flame welding and other traditional crafts intensive. CENTRAL INSTITUTE Shishi Hong such as the use 5 kW cross-flow CO2 laser cladding on petrochemical valve sealing surface of the austenitic matrix Ni-based self-fluxing. Comparison with conventional plasma spray layer. By laser cladding petrochemical valve sealing surface to obtain a thickness of 3.0 mm, surface is smooth alloy layer. In the organization and performance are significantly better than the plasma spray process. Xinlin and other uses 5 kW cross-flow CO2 laser, petrochemical high parameters of the valve sealing surface of different substrate materials by laser cladding. The alloy powder as CoCrWB and NiCrFeBSi. Based on the research to solve the thick layer of single track cladding crack topic on to give a thick 2-3.5min, smooth surface, no quality defects of laser cladding.

Due to the small area of the laser beam, for some small parts damaged area laser cladding repair particularly convenient. Also very effective. As a repair station with laser repair of automotive transmission shaft with universal joints. British company Rolls-Royce RB211 laser cladding technique used in gas turbine blade chain shoulder repair. Oil downhole tool, there are many parts can be laser repair technique, such as drill string stabilizers often work with the wall with grinding, easily worn, in its cladding layer of cemented carbide powder, in order to improve its wear resistance. And once the wear layer is worn away, can also be covered with a layer of carbide on the surface repair process is simple and quick. Obvious. This is not only a steady progress in the life, but also saves raw materials and reduce costs.

Other applications of laser surface modification technology

Laser transformation hardening and laser cladding are in the petroleum and petrochemical industry, the most widely used laser surface modification process, other laser surface modification technology research and application of relatively less.

Laser Melting laser power density is very high, in a very short time and the interaction of the metal, the metal surface in an instant local area is heated to very high temperatures to melt, and then by means of a cold metal matrix absorption and the role of heat conduction, so that a very thin surface layer of molten metal rapid solidification. Laser Melting cast structure is obtained. Its high hardness. Wear is also good. Its process and laser transformation hardening is similar, except that the power density and irradiation time are different. Aluminum surface melting can improve skin tissue. Make it refined. Remove surface defects, the use of aluminum progress. Copper alloy surface remelting, fused tissue more dense layer of uniform conductivity and wear progress. Of the conductive contact electrodes play an important role. The process in the metallurgical industry is more typical roll laser texturing techniques. You can texturing same time, the laser active region material obtained extraordinary hardness. To nip bring extraordinary toughening effect, to extend the service life of the roll. Laser Melting in the oil industry is seldom used. The former Soviet Union Drilling Technology Research Institute and other units with 1 kW CO2 gas lasers 128700 bearing surface of the short period of rapid heating and deep laser melting. Then controlling the cooling rate, the surface hardness of the ball is HRC57-58; surface of the shaft ring and race finish. You do not need to finish, and good wear resistance of the raceway, and strengthen the depth of up to 1.2 cm.

Similar to laser cladding laser alloying. But they have different. Laser alloying and laser cladding is coated with a laser beam of high power density at the surface of a metal or alloy coating. To melt. Thereby strengthening the process surface. The main difference is that the degree of melting of the substrate surface. Laser alloying is irradiated with a laser beam surface coating of pure metal or alloy coatings. Forming a puddle on the substrate. Surface tension of the alloy elements and temperature gradients cause mechanical stirring, and the diffusion in the bath, in a very short time to melt a thickness of the melted layer 10-10 for the purpose of surface alloying. Laser alloying elements added into the melt and the substrate together. And entering into the melted base material to form a new alloy. Its composition is different from the external alloys. Also different from the substrate.
China has begun to laser alloying technology applied to the actual product, in order to strengthen the new high-temperature structural materials. In order to improve its wear resistance circle. When the laser pulse is sufficiently high power (109 W / cm2), the metal surface in a short time to produce vaporized, expansion, explosion, shock wave generated great pressure on the metal surface. The material surface plastic deformation, dislocations. Which can significantly improve the hardness, yield strength and anti-fatigue properties. Laser shock wave, and the material strength and surface hardening progressive method called laser shock peening. This approach has been applied in the aviation industry. Aerospace aluminum layer enables the laser shock peening fatigue strength increased 4.5-9.8 times. Austenitic steel by 5 times the impact of hardening, hardness progress 20% -40%, Ti and its alloys by laser shock peening has a good effect.

In recent years. Laser Surface Treatment has evolved from a transformation hardening phase, surface alloying stage to the reaction surface hardening phase - that is, under certain conditions. Through a chemical reaction on the substrate surface inherently Some strengthening phase, in order to achieve the purpose of strengthening, it can be divided into laser physical vapor deposition (LPW) and laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD). In the mechanical field. Especially metallic materials laser ceramic coating and coating technology compelling. By controlling the laser power density and processing time to obtain different properties, the ceramic coating and the coating Tao different thicknesses. This technique is mainly used in the electronics industry. But the application in the petroleum and petrochemical industry, has yet to carry out research work.
Summay: Conditions of relatively poor oil field. Many metal parts to withstand heavy loads and long-term corrosion, wear use conditions, resulting in the premature failure of the destruction, and thus shorten the service life. Discontinued inspection and replaced with new parts. Both increased material costs. But also affect oil production, bringing many losses. Using laser surface modification technology enables high-performance low-grade material surface modification. To achieve the best combination of low cost components and high-performance work surface. To solve the contradiction between the overall modification and surface modification brings the possibility of a significant impact on the choice of materials and components important to match the performance, design, and manufacturing. Currently. Laser transformation hardening and laser cladding in the petroleum and petrochemical industries have been some applications, but mainly confined to underground oil and mechanical downhole drilling machinery. Laser processing technology in petroleum machinery industry has not been widely used, there are a lot of processing equipment worth laser enhancement technology. Such as oil field, petrochemical plants there are many critical wearing parts, damage to parts of the high cost of abandoning a new leaf, if using laser cladding repair re-use, is able to significantly reduce costs. Also. Pipelines, oil industry drill string used in large, high quality requirements, can be developed as an efficient, practical and economical high-power laser processing system, so that the inner and outer surfaces of the pipe quench hardening, alloying, amorphization, glazing, can solve the corrosion fatigue fracture problem, it has obvious economic benefits. In addition, if a laser surface hardening technology for the oil industry in a great amount of sucker rod to strengthen and repair its cost is very impressive.