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High-power fiber laser applications in the machinery industry
- Jun 24, 2016 -

High-power fiber laser applications in the machinery industry
Laser processing is a new technology rise in, at the early 1960s, widely used in agricultural machinery, construction machinery, grain and oil machinery, special vehicles, blades and shipbuilding industries. Especially in the development fastest speed mechanical industry, and it is widely used in machinery manufacturing industry a further boost to the laser processing technology industrialization.

In 1970s, the United States conducted two studies: First laser welded steel body of the Ford Motor Company carried out; the second is the power company General Motors steering gearbox surface laser hardening. Development of machinery manufacturing contributed to both studies after laser processing technology. By the late 1980s, application examples of laser processing has increased, which is the most rapidly growing laser cutting, laser welding and laser hardening. These three technologies have already been developed, also widely used. Enter the 21st century, initial "State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology" and "National Laser Processing Research Center," the first in Wuhan Fali Lai Cutting Systems Engineering Co., Ltd. set up the laser industry research group, and key research projects selected to Farley Levin as a production and research base. Since then, high-power laser processing technology was able to take root in the machinery industry in China.

Laser processing technology had such a wide range of applications, since it is compared with the traditional processing technology has many advantages: a non-contact processing, no mechanical force; the second is the processing of high hardness, high melting point, extremely brittle hard materials processing; Third, high precision, thermal deformation is small, processing of high quality; Fourth, with modern CNC machine tools combine to make laser processing with high precision, good controllability, the procedure is simple, less provincial materials pollution. Next, the first volume in a comprehensive machinery industry in broader application of several laser processing technology.
1. Laser cutting

Laser cutting is the use of high power density of the focused beam is irradiated workpiece material absorbs laser energy, a sharp rise in temperature, the surface begins to melt or gasification, and combustion gas blowing activity. With the relative movement of the laser beam and the workpiece, on the workpiece formed slit. Laser light hits the surface, a portion of the light is absorbed, another portion of the light reflected by the workpiece. Partially absorbed into heat, so that the surface temperature of the sharp rise in material melting, vaporization, a black hole effect, the absorption rate of the material progress, the rapid heating of the cutting zone material. In this case Oxygen can combustion, and provide a lot of heat, so that the cutting speed of progress; also blown off the slag, and cooling to protect the lens.

Laser cutting has many features: laser-cutting super hard, especially brittle and extremely soft material; kerf width is very narrow; the cut surface smooth; cutting surface of the heat-affected layer shallow, small surface stress; cutting speed, small heat affected zone; for sheet metal processing.

In the industrial machinery manufacturing, the "National Key Laboratory of Laser Technology" jointly developed and Wuhan Fali Lai WALC4020 wide format CNC laser cutting machine (see Figure 1), in addition to the above requirements can be achieved and the characteristics of wide-format cutting, also has the following technical innovations: the cantilever beam upside down, driven by linear motors, SIEMENS 840D controller, proprietary beam quality adjustment system, penetration testing, autofocus, dual punch cutting the flow control system and the vertical lift pallet structure . These innovations enable WALC4020 laser cutting machine technology performance than other similar products, reached the international advanced level.

2. Laser welding

Laser welding is a high-speed, non-contact, deformation of small production and processing methods, is very suitable for a large and continuous process. Fali Lai high-power laser research and production base for laser welding machines, or fusion welding and cutting in one of the laser processing equipment, welding quality can multiply progress. Its high strength welded joints can be achieved with the base material of equal strength, stable equipment performance, good repeatability, high reliability, no welded joints broken off, and the first in China to develop a laser automobile exhaust pipes, drive components and production of the workpiece welding equipment, can exponentially increase production efficiency and service life, economic efficiency is very obvious.

3. Laser hardening

Laser laser hardening is hardened, high-energy laser beam is used to quickly scan the surface of the cylinder bore, the surface of the thin layer of small area (spot size) rapid absorption of the energy leaving a sharp rise in temperature (see FIG. 2, FIG. 3). Due to the excellent heat transfer, thermal conductivity, heat the surface of the metal base quickly spread to other parts of the cylinder base, thereby completing the self-cooling quenching in a very short moment, realized with the cylinder bore surface becomes hardened.

Compared with conventional laser surface hardening of the hardening process, its history is short, but the effect has been achieved, the laser hardening process is a lot of features having a surface hardening treatment new technology.

The main features:

(1) High-speed heating and cooling of surface of the material.

(2) High surface laser hardening treatment hardness higher than conventional quenching 5% to 20%, the obtained fine Hardening.

(3) Since the laser heating speed, therefore small heat-affected zone, quenching stress and deformation.

(4) Shape complex parts and other conventional methods can not be used for local treatment of parts hardened. At the same time, it can also be different in different parts of the laser hardening treatment of the same parts as needed.

(5) Laser hardening process cycle is short, high production efficiency, easy to implement process control computer, a high degree of automation, can be incorporated into the production line.

(6) laser hardening by heat conduction from the outside to the inside cold, no coolant, no environmental pollution.

By the heat treatment theory it shows that the rate of change of the hardness of the material after heat treatment and temperature are closely related. Rate of change, the higher the hardness, the better the wear resistance. Laser hardening, the surface can be obtained crystal refinement, dense martensite and Levin's body surface graphite disappear, increasing carbon content, diffusion of progress, residual austenite in the subsurface. Cast iron materials, the surface hardness after substantial progress from the original hardness of 180 ~ 250HV increased to about 1000HV, progressive wear more than 3 to 4 times, and anti-fatigue properties and corrosion resistance of the surface can also be obtained significant progress.

With the successful development of high-power lasers, laser processing technology in the machinery industry has been rapid development and wide application, high-power laser cutting and welding technology for the national industry will play a very good role in boosting!