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Scientists capture the world's most powerful laser evaporation of water droplets instant picture
- Jul 13, 2016 -

Scientists capture the world's most powerful laser evaporation of water droplets instant picture

Recently, scientists at the microscopic scale, captured the world's most powerful X-ray laser will be instantly vaporized liquid scenario.

These lasers use extremely bright, extremely fast strobe beams to take pictures of the evaporation process, the liquid evaporates and it is one of the fastest in nature phenomenon.

The researchers designed a series of experiments, hoping to make better use of X-ray lasers, while the process of evaporation of the liquid laser gain a deeper understanding.
These tests SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University (SLACNational Accelerator Laboratory) in carried out using the lab's continuous linear accelerator source (LinacCoherent Light Source, referred LCLS), which is the world's most powerful X-ray laser .
"If we can understand the process liquid burst, we can avoid some unnecessary effects." Dio Colorado pulse Stanford Research Institute - Stan (Claudiu Stan) said, "It also helped us find some X-ray liquid burst initiator to trigger a new method of changing process samples, and in extreme physical environments were studied. these experiments will help us better understand the X-ray and other applications exist in a variety of phenomena. "

In the SLAC linear accelerator continuous light source device, researchers often use the liquid sample is sent to the transmit path X of the laser beam. But in the full power state, ultra-bright X-ray energy in the twinkling of an eye between the sample played ashes. Fortunately, in most cases, the researchers were able to catch up before the sample is damaged get the data they need.

And the latest study succeeded in micro-scale show the entire process of bursting, allowing scientists to better understand the process of X-ray laser experiments will produce what kind of impact.
Stein and his team of X-ray laser to inject liquid into orbit two methods were studied, one of the liquid drop by drop continuously dropped orbit, the other in the form of flow, steady flow of liquid injected into orbit.

Whenever X-ray pulse hits the liquid, the research team will take a picture, the time from the pulse emission are only separated by one of five billion to one millionth of a second. They shot a total of hundreds of such flash photos, then combine them into a video.

"Thanks to the research designed imaging system, the first time we successfully recorded under this process." Co-author Sebastian - Butte (SébastienBoutet) says, "We use a ultrafast lasers to illuminate a liquid explosive moment, like searchlight, then using a high resolution suitable for working in a vacuum environment microscope to create an image.
The video recording of the X-ray pulse to make the whole process of droplet breakup. After being X-ray pulse hit a ball drops become more finely divided particles and steam, and then spread to other nearby droplets so that they are broken off. These damaged droplets will then move to the nearest droplets, and then they together. Pictures central vertical white line is the X-rays through the path.

In the continuous injection of the liquid, a video display, X-ray pulse first shot on a hole in the water, and then expanding the hole, two flow gradually formed a thin layer of "water film", shaped like two umbrellas, and slowly backward retraction, final and water blend together.

After being X-ray pulse hit a ball drops become more finely divided particles and steam, and then spread to other nearby droplets so that they are broken off.

In the experimental data obtained on the basis of the researchers created a mathematical model to accurately describe the liquid explosive form are subject to different variables that affect the time, such as pulse intensity, and water droplet size and diameter.

They also predicted that the pulse will form a cavity in the water, which would be the European X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray Free Electron Laser, XFEL) and SLAC LCLS-II laser laboratory under construction cause some challenges. Both are advanced, next generation X-ray lasers, laser emission rate can reach thousands of times existing equipment.

"These water after the explosion, take a few millionths of a second to recover ever. Therefore, if the next X-ray pulse in time for the launch of the water recovery, we can not let every pulse has come in handy. Fortunately, , our data show that we have to adjust the water flow to a more reasonable form, can be quickly restored to its original appearance. there are some ways to make the water recovery and even go even faster. this allows us to LCLS-II to maximize the power of the laser. "